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How A CPU (Central Processing Unit) Works !

Hi, we'll be discussing classical computing, more specifically - how the CPU operates and CPU parallelism. [Music] In the previous video in this series we discussed the shrinking of the transistor, allowing for more powerful and efficient computers, as well as the end of Moore's Law based on the miniaturization of the transistor within the next seven to ten years. Be sure to check it out for some background context for this video. Now in that video when referring to computing performance, we were focused on classical computing based on the CPU.

Classical computing, is essentially the digital computer, almost every computing device on the market today is a classical computer. Classical computers operate in serial, in other words, as mentioned in the first video in the series, Computing Origins, executing various instructions extremely fast in 'order', but to the average user it appears to be running them in parallel, meaning multiple instructions at a time. This is du…

10 Best Windows 10 Tips And Tricks

So you've been using Windows forever, andyou think you know everything it has to offer. But I'm here to tell you that you're WRONG! Windows has lots of little hidden featuresand tools hidden away that you may have never even heard of. Some of them are very minor features, andothers are actually really significant. So now I'm going to give you a list of 10Advanced Windows features you probably never knew about.

Tip No. 1


Starting off we have a cool tool built intowindows called "Cipher". This one is great for anybody even a littlebit security conscious, but even I didn't know about it until recently. Cipher is a simple command line program yourun through the command prompt, that allows you to encrypt or decrypt data on your computer,as well as security erase files so they can't be recovered after deletion. There are a lot of options with this, butif you simply want to encrypt or decrypt something, you just type in Cipher, /e, then the pathof the folder you want to encrypt. The /e is just for encrypt, where-as /d wouldbe decrypt. Then it will do it's thing, and now that folderis encrypted. And you can tell, because now the folder shouldhave a little lock icon on it, which will also show on any other files in the folder. But I think the coolest thing about this isnow, any more files you put into that encrypted folder will automatically be encrypted onthe fly, so you don't have to keep running the command. The operating system handles everything. Also, the encryption key is tied to your useraccount, so you don't have to remember any extra password. That way, the encrypted files are not accessibleunless the computer is on and you're logged in. But you should backup the encryption key,which it might prompt you to do. The other useful feature of cipher is beingable to securely erase deleted data. For this you use the /w parameter, so it'sCipher, /w, then the name of the volume or path, such as E:/ . What this will do is take all the unusedspace on the drive, not any actual files or folders, and overwrite it. This makes it impossible to recover anythingthat has been deleted. So overall, this is a really powerful andawesome tool, and I bet many of you didn't even know you could encrypt files this way.

Tip No. 2


Next up, we have the "Mobility Center". It's just a little window that gives you aneasy view of some common features you might need on a portable devices. It's usually only enabled on laptops and tabletdevices, but with some registry tweaks you could probably get it on desktop. To run it you can search for it in the startmenu, or run it directly, "mblctr.exe" Some of the settings it has are screen brightness,volume, battery mode, WiFi toggling, presentation mode, external display settings, and maybemore. As you can imagine, most of this doesn't reallymatter on desktop, but on a laptop or tablet these settings are definitely nice to haveclose by.

Tip No. 3


Moving on we have another quick little feature,this time for Windows Explorer. You know how in any window there's obviouslya search box to look for files. But did you know you can SAVE searches youmake frequently? When you type in a search term, a "SearchTools" tab will appear, which has a lot of options. Here you can save a search, which will actuallycreate a file with the search term in it. And you can pin that folder so all your searchterms are easily accessible. This is especially good if you do a lot ofadvanced searches, like for specific file types. These extra filters can be applied by clickingkind, size, and other properties. So even though Windows search is pretty slow,it can probably do more than you thought.

Tip No. 4


Up Next is a neat feature for the Windowsclock. What you wanna do is right click the clockin the task bar, then hit Adjust/Date Time. Here you'll see a link to "Add clocks fordifferent time zones". It's pretty straight forward, but it allowsyou to not only display one time, but now multiple. This is great if you have friends in othertime zones, or do business there or whatever. So now you can click on the clock in the taskbar,and below the current time, you'll see your extra time zone as well.

Tip No. 5


Alright this will be number 5. Have you ever heard of the Math Input panel? For many people, it's useless, but for others,it's a life saver. You can open it just by searching for it inthe start menu. Then you'll be shown what looks like graphpaper or something. What this tool lets you do is draw out mathematicalequations, and it will attempt to convert it to text. So say I'm in Microsoft Word writing a document,and I need to add a bit of math for whatever reason. Normally you'd have to painsteakingly go throughall the math symbols, try to correctly place the symbols as fractions, all that. But with this, you can simply write it out,and it will do all that for you, and you just hit the "Insert" button to paste it into thedocument. It's not always perfect, but you can easilyfix it's mistakes using the select and correct tool. So if it gets anything wrong, you can pickfrom other symbols it might be. I think anyone who takes math courses willfind this especially useful.

Tip No. 6


Number 6 is another very small and simple,but also useful feature, the Volume Mixer Panel. Normally when you click on the speaker iconin the taskbar, you just have the option to raise the whole system volume up and down. But what if you want to change the volumeof just one program? What you do is right click the speaker, andhit Open Volume Mixer. Now, it will show you not one, but severalvolume sliders, one for the whole system, and one for each individual program! You'll notice when you raise one program abovethe whole system volume, the maximum of the system will increase to allow this, and allother programs will stay the same. You can also lower an individual program aswell obviously. And the cool thing is now when you adjustthe total system volume, it will keep scaling them based on the relative volumes you justset. I think this is one feature that really everyonecan find useful, but is surprisngly not well known.

Tip No. 7


Ok next we have a neat feature in regardsto the quick launch bar. You might have several programs down thereso you can quickly launch them, but there is perhaps an even faster way still. Did you know that if you press the Windowskey, and a number key, it will launch whatever program in the quick launch bar that correspondsto that number. So if you press Win + 1, it launches the firstprogram, Win + 2, the second one, and so on. You might say, well that's not even reallyfaster than clicking on it. And I think you're right, but there mightbe cases where it is still useful. Like maybe you're on a laptop without a mouse,and hitting those keys IS actually faster than scrolling over to the button. Or maybe you're using a full screen program,and you want to run a program or shortcut without having to Alt-Tab out first. I'm sure you can get creative with it.

Tip No. 8


Number 8. This is actually a hugely useful one, forsome people at least. It's the Linux Bash Shell, in Windows. Microsoft just added this in a recent update,much to the surprise of everyone. If you have no idea what I'm talking about,Microsoft basically allows you to install a "Subsystem" for Linux, specifically ubuntu,allowing it to actually run some linux applications. And this includes Linux's "bash shell", whichyou can kind of think of as the Command Prompt of Linux. Great so how do you enable it? First you need to enable Windows developermode by going to Settings, Update and Security, For Developers, then selecting Developer Mode. Then you search the start menu for the "TurnWindows Features On and Off" menu. Find where it says "Windows subsystem forLinux Beta", check the box, and you're done. You might have to reboot, but now if you searchfor "bash" it should come up. After installing the Ubuntu subsystem, andcreating a Unix usernamd and password, you now successfully are in a Linux Environment,running on Windows. And if you have no idea what any of that stuffmeans, don't worry, not many average windows users will ever need this, but is definitelyuseful for IT professionals and that sort.

Tip No. 9


Number 9 is really quick and simple. If you've ever had Windows Explorer freezeup, you know it can be a real pain, and normally you have to launch the task manager, findExplorer.exe, and end it. But there's actually a much easier way. All you have to do is hold Control and Shiftthen right click the task bar, and at the bottom you'll see a new option to "Exit Explorer". Obviously way simpler than doing all thatother nonsense if you're having issues, and should come in handy.

Tip No. 10


Ok, finally, the big daddy of hidden tools,which isn't even a single tool, but a collection of many. And it's not actually included in Windows,but Microsoft has it on their site to download separately. You may have heard of it, it's called the"SysInternals Suite". If you haven't heard of it, you're in fora real treat lemme tell you, good thing you stuck around till the end here. On the download page, linked in description,you will see a list of a TON of extra Windows tools made by Microsoft, that are super useful,but not included in Windows by default. One good example is the "Process Explorer",which is basically the task manager on serious steroids. It will show you a list of all running processes,and so much more. For example, if you've ever tried to moveor change a file but couldn't because it was in use by a program, you can use process explorerto figure out what program it is.

You press the binoculars to do a search, typein the name of the file, and it will tell you which program is using it. And if you want to quickly find a programin the list, you can drag the crosshairs over the programs Window, and it will go to itautomatically. And that's just scratching the surface. Another good one is "Autoruns". Windows already has a built in feature forshowing what programs launch on boot up, but it doesn't always show everything. Autoruns will. You'll run it and see a HUGE list of everythingthat startsup with Windows. Not just programs, but services, DLLs beingcalled, what registry entry calls it, even what media codecs get loaded. I think this one is super important, becausethere have been times where I KNOW a program is starting up with Windows, but it just doesn'tshow up anywhere. This should help you fix that. Those are just two utilities in Sysinternals,but as you saw there are a ton more. I might need to make an entire separate videotalking about the best of those. So that's everything. Of course check comments, maybe there areother cool features someone else knows about I didn't mention , I'llsee you next time, have a good one.

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How A CPU (Central Processing Unit) Works !

Hi, we'll be discussing classical computing, more specifically - how the CPU operates and CPU parallelism. [Music] In the previous video in this series we discussed the shrinking of the transistor, allowing for more powerful and efficient computers, as well as the end of Moore's Law based on the miniaturization of the transistor within the next seven to ten years. Be sure to check it out for some background context for this video. Now in that video when referring to computing performance, we were focused on classical computing based on the CPU.

Classical computing, is essentially the digital computer, almost every computing device on the market today is a classical computer. Classical computers operate in serial, in other words, as mentioned in the first video in the series, Computing Origins, executing various instructions extremely fast in 'order', but to the average user it appears to be running them in parallel, meaning multiple instructions at a time. This is du…

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